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Project Abstract:
With the increase in population, natural resources of water are being polluted. Ozone technology reveals one of the most efficient and effective method of achieving pollution removal in water. Ozone is the most powerful broad spectrum microbiological control or disinfecting agent available for water treatment. It is highly reactive and unstable. Considering chlorine which is the most commonly used water disinfectant chemical, O3 is 15% stronger oxidizer and kills bacteria 3000 times faster. The important advantage of O3 is that it produces no toxic by products and is environmental friendly. Ozone breaks large and long chain molecules in to smaller building blocks which are easily biodegradable and less dangerous. But ozone cannot treat certain complex pesticides , man-made molecules and inert gases effectively. Considering all benefits ozone is a good choice for water treatment. For efficiency ozone is outstanding as it is the most powerful broadspectrum micro-biological control or disinfecting agent available. Thus if ozone cannot be used to treat a water quality problem, it is likely that no other available oxidant will do the job either. Hence, from the highest reaches of atmosphere to the deepest of ocean ozone is a very efficient protector, provider and recycler.
Project Abstract:
High air pollution in terms of particulate matter, SO2, NO2 etc has been observed from the rapidly urbanized cities. This is the most issuing problem for the environmental planners and scientists. The conventional approach of air quality status planning is generally achieved within four phases, namely monitoring, modeling, development and finally execution. Monitoring is achieved by integrative sampling; grab sampling, and passive sampling. But previous studies show that conventional approach to assess the pollution level are not efficient. Since monitoring plays the major role, more accuracy is needed. It has been observed that air monitoring can be improved by remote sensing technique. Meteorological parameters may be assessed by Radar Wind Profile, Dopler Sodar and RASS.Gaseous monitoring may be improved by LIDAR, DIAL, DOAS etc. The records of these air monitoring may be geographically recombined by the GIS technique. Conclusions has been drawn out from the present work that the air monitoring may be improved by the use of instrument based on remote sensing technique. Meteorological parameters may be assessed by the Radar Wind Profiler, Dopler Sodar and RASS (Radio Acoustic Sounding System). Particulate monitoring may be assessed by the LAPS (Lidar Atmospheric Profile Sensor) instrument. Gaseous monitoring may be improved by the use of various available instruments such as LIDAR, DIAL, DOAS, FTIR, OPUV and TILDAS. The records of these air monitoring may be geographically recombined by the GIS techniques. For efficient, cost effective and continuous improvements of air quality status GIS based modelling may be applied. The detail of these methodologies and critical review of remote sensing air monitoring instruments will be discussed in the full text of paper. Finally suitable recommendations have been proposed for achieving efficient and reliable air quality status planning.
Project Abstract:
Fuel cells are a proven power source for manned spacecraft where they generate electrical power from stored hydrogen and oxygen that are carried in cryogenic liquid form. The world’s petroleum production is about to pass its peak, so a world wide development effort is being directed into adapting these high efficiency fuel cells into powering automobiles, buses and trucks. Fuel cells are more efficient than the secondary batteries used. First Alkali fuel cells are used in aircrafts, but now a days fuel cells using Proton Exchange Membrane are used. A fuel cell can theoretically, deliver 500 kilowatt-hours per kilogram of hydrogen plus oxygen. Today’s best lithium batteries can deliver around 120 kWh per kilogram. Fuel cells can convert fuel to electric power with an efficiency of over 80%. Even a diesel engine cannot do better than 40% at it’s optimum speed and load. In the past, fuel cells contained a platinum catalyst that is very costly. Now a nickel-tin catalyst which works was discovered. As a result, fuel cells can be a possible substitute for batteries in spacecraft. The different power requirements in an aircraft & the application of fuel cells on aerospace are discussed in this paper. The fuel cell will find applications that lie beyond the reach of the internal combustion engine. Once low cost manufacturing is feasible, this power source will transform the world and bring great wealth potential to those who invest in this technology. It is said that the fuel cell is as revolutionary in transforming our technology as the microprocessor has been. Once fuel cell technology has matured and is in common use, our quality of life will improve and environmental degradation caused by burning fossil fuels will be decreased. It is generally known that the maturing process of the fuel cell will not be as rapid as that of
Project Abstract:
The advent of membranes makes the wastewater treatment easier nowadays. Activated sludge process (ASP) , which is the oldest technique in wastewater treatment , is combined with highly efficient membrane filtration to start a sophisticated technique called Membrane Bioreactor (MBR).It is an efficient process for maintaining a long solids retention time(SRT) at a relatively short hydraulic retention time(HRT),which is needed for the treatment of waste water. MBR is favored to all other conventional techniques because the treated water is free from suspended solids and microorganisms, thus making it suitable for reuse. This unique application gives high degradation rates, extremely low sludge production and very compact design. This seminar includes the conventional activated sludge process, description of membrane bioreactor operation, various types of filtrations that are used in it, its design parameters and applications. It also gives a brief description of the cleaning of the membrane. The MBR technology has a number of advantages.The most important thing to be considered when employing an MBR is that it is not economical to run a membrane bioreactor at lowtreatment capacity and high treatment is much more complicated to stabilize.So,before,stabilizing an MBr,one should go for technical feasibility as well as economical feasibility.If these two are satisfactory,then Membrane Bioreactor (MBR) is the best option to treat municipal as well as industrial wastewater
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